Product: Ruwal Sulfur denitration - Three Rooms
Version suitable for marine aquariums, or fresh water with high pH medium or hard, eg. aquariums with African cichlids.
Complete with sulfur, a key to open and close the glasses, power Rio pump 90.
The denitrification to sulfur RW exploit the ability of some bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus to oxidize the elemental sulfur. In aerobic conditions, these bacteria use the oxygen in the water for their activities oxidation of sulfur. Bacterium of the genus Thiobacillus (Thiobacillus denitrificans) is able to use in anoxic environment, NO3 instead of O2.
This method of denitrification is summarized in the following rection chemistry:
2NO2 + S + H2O + CaCO3 = CaSO4 + N2
and its effectiveness has been verified both in fresh water than in seawater, although in this last case is not yet clear which mechanism leads, as in fresh water, the total elimination of nitrates. In this case the sulfur is used both as food and as a support for T. denitrificans.
The denitrification to sulfur consists of one or more reaction chambers where elemental sulfur is introduced in the form of small spheres. The reactor is passed through water filled well to deal with a very slow flow from bottom to top (use a movement from below upwards, in addition to promoting better circulation and prevent the phenomena of forced channeling, favors also the elimination of nitrogen produced during the chemical reaction).
Initially T. denitrificans use the oxygen present in water, causing soon anoxic conditions inside the reactor at this point, the bacteria begin to utilize oxygen for NO3, reduced to N2. At the same time the sulfur is oxidized to sulfate.
One effect of this chemical reaction is the production of sulfate and hydrogen ions (one thinks also of CO2), thus lowering the pH of the treated water. To neutralize the acidity out of the reactor and sulphates products, it is essential to use an additional chamber containing calcareous material, such as coral sand. Even for this second room is recommended flow from bottom to top.
Moreover, the calcareous material present in the second chamber neutralizes sulfur compounds produced by precipitation, preventing their introduction into the aquarium. This will also get an enrichment of calcium in the water out.
The use of a denitrification to sulfur is very useful if only fish tanks, especially if crowded. Is also useful in reef aquariums that are home to soft coral that must be fed regularly (eg Dendronephthya) or when the presence of an adequate amount of live rock is not sufficient to maintain an extremely low level of No3 (it has been proved experimentally that Sulfur denitrator the system is far more effective in the case of a rate of nitrate below 20 mg / l) in case you wanted to breed the species particularly sensitive (it was verified that even a low level of the NO3 can cause a rapid increase of zooxanthellae, resulting in a tendency on the part of hard corals to assume a brownish color).
A big advantage to using a denitration to sulfur is that it does not require, unlike other systems, to be fed, because it is a system autosufficiente.Inoltre, the level of efficiency of a Sulfur is definitely denitrator higher than, equal volume, compared to conventional denitration.
Relation between quantity of sulfur to be used and volume of water to be treated: in the case of NO3 <60 mg / l, a liter of sulfur is sufficient to treat 100-300 gallons of water. As a rule of thumb can be considered 100 liters with 60 mg / l, 200 l of 40 mg / l and 300 liters with 20 mg / l. In the case of NO3> 60 mg / l, the amount of sulfur should be increased proportionately. If necessary, can be used two or more filters simultaneously.
Use of denitrator Sulfur should be limited to aquariums in which the nitrification process is stable for some time, as in the initial stage of the filter, there may be increases in NO2 and NO3 leaving the filter, which do not constitute a danger in Aquariums started.
The use of a denitrification with sulfur may cause many advantages, but must be used carefully following the instructions attached, otherwise the possibility of adverse reactions are not easily controllable.
The denitrification to sulfur Rw are available in two versions 2 and 3 rooms of reaction.
Instruction for use:
- Rinse carefully sulfur into balls and fill the reactor connected to the circulation pump.
- Rinse carefully the calcareous material to use and fill the second reactor connected to the output tube fitted with a tap.
- Operate the circulation pump and pay through the tap fitted, the outgoing flow of one drop per second.
Compliance with this flow rate is needed to successfully start the filter and to avoid adverse reactions and not easily controllable.
A flow top has NO2 and / or NO3 leaving the filter over the non-initiation of the filter itself, while a much lower flow may lead to the production of H2S in the filter, the characteristic smell of rotten eggs (this phenomenon usually occurs with a velocity <20-30 drops / minute).
Keep this velocity for 2-4 weeks (and the average time of initiation of the filter. In some cases this time may be longer, up to 7-8 weeks), regularly monitored. In the starting phase of the filter is normal, the presence of NO2 and NO3 leaving the filter.
Attention on NO2 and NO3 leaving the filter.
When NO2 and NO3 exiting the filter are equal to 0 mg / l, the filter can track.
At this point, the velocity can be increased, although very gradually, you should increase it gradually, never more than 50% at one time and with an interval of not less than 2 days. NO2 and NO3 check out after each change in velocity.
If after a further increase in velocity, he found traces of NO2 and NO3 output, return to the previous regulation, which will be the maximum for optimum operation of the filter.
The sulfur is consumed very slowly and must eventually be reinstated every 3-4 months.
It is recommended to fully replace every 12-15 months